1.1.3. Discovery Performance

This section provides the results of testing RTI Connext DDS 6.1.1 Simple Discovery at various scales of applications, DomainParticipants, and endpoints (DataWriters and DataReaders).

These numbers should only be used as a first rough approximation, since the results are highly dependent on the hardware, software architecture, QoS used, and network infrastructure of the tested system.

1.1.3.1. Time to Complete Endpoint Discovery

The following graph shows the time it takes to complete endpoint discovery measured for different numbers of DomainParticipants with different numbers of endpoints. See the detailed information about the tests below.

Detailed test input

The complete discovery process has two phases. In the first, the DomainParticipant(s) exchange messages to discover each other; in the second, the DataWriters and DataReaders (endpoints) within those participants discover each other.

The main goal for this test is to determine the behavior of DDS discovery at various scales, with increasing numbers of DomainParticipants and increasing numbers of endpoints within those DomainParticipants.

Note

Tests in this report reflect Test Applications that were all set to launch at the same time. This places a great deal of stress on the discovery system. Additional stress could be added by allowing user data to flow during discovery, but this was not configured for these tests.

The input parameters chosen for these tests are designed to go through a set of realistic scenarios. These parameters are:

  • Number of hosts: 7

  • Participants in the system: [100, 200, 300, 400]

  • Topics in the system: [0.5, 0.65, 0.80, 0.95, 1.10] * Number of Participants in the system

  • Readers per topic: 10

  • Writers per topic: 2

Given these input parameters, the number of topics in each of the tests are shown below. In the first row, the number of topics used are half the number of participants used, and so on.

TOPICS

Participants

100

200

300

400

Topics = 50% of the Participant Number

50

101

151

201

Topics = 65% of the Participant Number

65

130

195

261

Topics = 80% of the Participant Number

80

160

241

321

Topics = 95% of the Participant Number

95

191

285

381

Topics = 110% of the Participant Number

111

222

331

441

As a result, the number of endpoints in each of the tested scenarios can be calculated as follows:

ENDPOINTS

Participants

100

200

300

400

Topics = 50% of the Participant Number

600

1212

1812

2412

Topics = 65% of the Participant Number

780

1560

2340

3132

Topics = 80% of the Participant Number

960

1920

2892

3852

Topics = 95% of the Participant Number

1140

2292

3420

4572

Topics = 110% of the Participant Number

1332

2664

3972

5292


Detailed results

TIME FOR COMPLETE ENDPOINT DISCOVERY (Seconds)

Participants

100

200

300

400

Topics = 50% of the Participant Number

3.9480

9.4990

19.4370

25.7350

Topics = 65% of the Participant Number

4.2950

9.5960

19.7360

27.0660

Topics = 80% of the Participant Number

4.5540

12.2370

20.4340

27.7330

Topics = 95% of the Participant Number

4.9400

12.2360

21.8360

29.4960

Topics = 110% of the Participant Number

7.4570

15.2120

21.9560

30.7930


Software information

RTI developed a testing framework specifically designed for discovery benchmarking. This framework was used to perform the tests detailed in this document. This framework is capable of running simultaneously different application loads and commands in all the hosts in the experiment. It can collect all of the results and monitor the resource usage of the hosts.

The framework is composed of four main applications: the Manager, Monitor, Agent and Test Application.

The Manager is the initial process to be run. This process launches and coordinates the Agents on each of the test hosts. The Agents are in charge of launching as many Test Applications as the Manager requests. The Manager also requests the Agents to start the tests and shut down.

The Monitor tool is used to visualize the memory, CPU, and discovery data from the Agent and the Test Application. It also indicates problems in the communication (hosts not connected, missed deadlines, etc.).

RTI Connext DDS 6.1.1 is used for compiling and linking. The architecture chosen for the libraries is x64Linux3gcc4.8.2.


Hardware information

Eight hosts were used to run the tests: seven to run the discovery applications and one to monitor and log the output information.

All these hosts have the following characteristics:

CPU Intel Core Xeon (12 Cores) 3.6GHz
Memory (RAM): 12 GB
OS: CentOS 7

All the hosts were connected to the same Gigabit Ethernet switch.

Some extra tuning was done to improve the network and memory capabilities of the hosts:

net.core.rmem_default=65536
net.core.rmem_max=10485760
net.core.wmem_default=65536
net.core.wmem_max=10485760
net.ipv4.ipfrag_high_thresh=8388608
net.core.netdev_max_backlog=30000

You can find more information about this tuning for a better Connext DDS response on RTI Community here.


QOS used

These are the QoS settings used for the Test Applications and Agents. In these QoS settings, we avoid sending the type code and TypeObject during discovery, relax the lease duration settings for participant discovery, and increase the buffer size of the UDPv4 receive sockets.

<dds>
    <qos_library name="DiscoveryLibrary">
        <qos_profile name="BaseDiscoveryProfile">
            <participant_qos name="BaseParticipantQos">
                <transport_builtin>
                    <mask>UDPv4</mask>
                </transport_builtin>
                <resource_limits>
                    <type_code_max_serialized_length>0</type_code_max_serialized_length>
                    <type_object_max_serialized_length>0</type_object_max_serialized_length>
                </resource_limits>
                <discovery_config>
                    <participant_liveliness_lease_duration>
                        <sec>200</sec>
                        <nanosec>0</nanosec>
                    </participant_liveliness_lease_duration>
                    <participant_liveliness_assert_period>
                        <sec>10</sec>
                        <nanosec>0</nanosec>
                    </participant_liveliness_assert_period>
                    <remote_participant_purge_kind>LIVELINESS_BASED_REMOTE_PARTICIPANT_PURGE
                    </remote_participant_purge_kind>
                    <max_liveliness_loss_detection_period>
                        <sec>10</sec>
                        <nanosec>0</nanosec>
                    </max_liveliness_loss_detection_period>
                </discovery_config>
                <property>
                    <value>
                        <element>
                            <name>dds.transport.UDPv4.builtin.recv_socket_buffer_size</name>
                            <value>1048576</value>
                        </element>
                    </value>
                </property>
            </participant_qos>
        </qos_profile>
    </qos_library>
</dds>

1.1.3.2. Discovery Process over Time

Using the Monitor application, more detailed information can be obtained for a given scenario. This can help in understanding how the discovery process is performed in a distributed system.

The following graphs show different parameters measured by Monitor, for a specific scenario.

../../../../../_images/DiscoveryParticipants.png
Detailed test input
  • Number of machines: 7

  • Participants in the system: 400

  • Topics in the system: 1.10 * Participants in the system = 441

  • Readers per topic: 10

  • Writers per topic: 2

  • Total endpoints: 5292


Software information

RTI developed a testing framework specifically designed for discovery benchmarking. This framework was used to perform the tests detailed in this document. This framework is capable of running simultaneously different application loads and commands in all the hosts in the experiment. It can collect all of the results and monitor the resource usage of the hosts.

The framework is composed of four main applications: the Manager, Monitor, Agent and Test Application.

The Manager is the initial process to be run. This process launches and coordinates the Agents on each of the test hosts. The Agents are in charge of launching as many Test Applications as the Manager requests. The Manager also requests the Agents to start the tests and shut down.

The Monitor tool is used to visualize the memory, CPU, and discovery data from the Agent and the Test Application. It also indicates problems in the communication (hosts not connected, missed deadlines, etc.).

RTI Connext DDS 6.1.1 is used for compiling and linking. The architecture chosen for the libraries is x64Linux3gcc4.8.2.


Hardware information

Eight hosts were used to run the tests: seven to run the discovery applications and one to monitor and log the output information.

All these hosts have the following characteristics:

CPU Intel Core Xeon (12 Cores) 3.6GHz
Memory (RAM): 12 GB
OS: CentOS 7

All the hosts were connected to the same Gigabit Ethernet switch.

Some extra tuning was done to improve the network and memory capabilities of the hosts:

net.core.rmem_default=65536
net.core.rmem_max=10485760
net.core.wmem_default=65536
net.core.wmem_max=10485760
net.ipv4.ipfrag_high_thresh=8388608
net.core.netdev_max_backlog=30000

You can find more information about this tuning for a better Connext DDS response on RTI Community here.


QOS used

These are the QoS settings used for the Test Applications and Agents. In these QoS settings, we avoid sending the type code and TypeObject during discovery, relax the lease duration settings for participant discovery, and increase the buffer size of the UDPv4 receive sockets.

<dds>
    <qos_library name="DiscoveryLibrary">
        <qos_profile name="BaseDiscoveryProfile">
            <participant_qos name="BaseParticipantQos">
                <transport_builtin>
                    <mask>UDPv4</mask>
                </transport_builtin>
                <resource_limits>
                    <type_code_max_serialized_length>0</type_code_max_serialized_length>
                    <type_object_max_serialized_length>0</type_object_max_serialized_length>
                </resource_limits>
                <discovery_config>
                    <participant_liveliness_lease_duration>
                        <sec>200</sec>
                        <nanosec>0</nanosec>
                    </participant_liveliness_lease_duration>
                    <participant_liveliness_assert_period>
                        <sec>10</sec>
                        <nanosec>0</nanosec>
                    </participant_liveliness_assert_period>
                    <remote_participant_purge_kind>LIVELINESS_BASED_REMOTE_PARTICIPANT_PURGE
                    </remote_participant_purge_kind>
                    <max_liveliness_loss_detection_period>
                        <sec>10</sec>
                        <nanosec>0</nanosec>
                    </max_liveliness_loss_detection_period>
                </discovery_config>
                <property>
                    <value>
                        <element>
                            <name>dds.transport.UDPv4.builtin.recv_socket_buffer_size</name>
                            <value>1048576</value>
                        </element>
                    </value>
                </property>
            </participant_qos>
        </qos_profile>
    </qos_library>
</dds>